Friedan also states that this is in contrast to the s, at which time women’s magazines often featured confident and independent heroines, many of whom were involved in careers. Friedan ends her book by promoting education and meaningful work as the ultimate method by which American women can avoid becoming trapped in the feminine mystique, calling for a drastic rethinking of what it means to be feminine, and offering several educational and occupational suggestions. The Feminine Mystique begins with an introduction describing what Friedan called “the problem that has no name”—the widespread unhappiness of women in the s and early s. By the year , The Feminine Mystique had sold more than 3 million copies and had been translated into many foreign languages. Many women dropped out of school early to marry, afraid that if they waited too long or became too educated, they would not be able to attract a husband.
Friedan says that this change in education arrested girls in their emotional development at a young age, because they never had to face the painful identity crisis and subsequent maturation that comes from dealing with many adult challenges. She notes that Freud saw women as childlike and as destined to be housewives, once pointing out that Freud wrote, “I believe that all reforming action in law and education would break down in front of the fact that, long before the age at which a man can earn a position in society, Nature has determined woman’s destiny through beauty, charm, and sweetness. Friedan shows that advertisers tried to encourage housewives to think of themselves as professionals who needed many specialized products in order to do their jobs, while discouraging housewives from having actual careers, since that would mean they would not spend as much time and effort on housework and therefore would not buy as many household products, cutting into advertisers’ profits. She notes that they secured important rights for women, including education, the right to pursue a career, and the right to vote. The statement called for “the true equality for all women”. They received the award from the Illinois State Historical Society. Friedan discusses the change in women’s education from the s to the early s, in which many women’s schools concentrated on non-challenging classes that focused mostly on marriage, family, and other subjects deemed suitable for women, as educators influenced by functionalism felt that too much education would spoil women’s femininity and capacity for sexual fulfillment.
Friedan originally intended to write a sequel to The Feminine Mystiquewhich was to be called Woman: Women’s history Feminist history Timeline of women’s rights other than voting.
Articles Feminists Literature American feminist literature Feminist comic books Conservative feminisms Countries by women’s average years in school Ecofeminist authors Feminist art critics Feminist economists Feminist philosophers Feminist poets Feminist rhetoricians Jewish feminists Muslim feminists Feminist parties Suffragists frieran suffragettes Women’s rights activists Frieda studies journals Women’s suffrage organizations.
Daniel Horowitz, a Professor of American Studies at Smith College points out that although Friedan presented herself as a typical suburban housewife, she was involved with radical politics and labor journalism in her youth, and during the time she wrote The Feminine Mystique she worked as a freelance journalist for women’s magazines and as a community organizer.
Timeline First-wave Second-wave timeline Third-wave Fourth-wave. Friedan notes that the uncertainties and fears during World War II and the Cold War made Americans long for the comfort of home, so they tried to create an idealized home life with the father as breadwinner and the mother as housewife. Friedan states that the editorial decisions concerning women’s magazines at the time were being made mostly by men, who insisted on stories and articles that showed women as either happy housewives or unhappy careerists, thus creating the “feminine mystique”—the idea that women were naturally fulfilled by devoting their lives to being housewives and mothers.
Friedan discusses Abraham Maslow ‘s hierarchy of needs and notes that women have been trapped at the basic, physiological level, expected to find their identity through their sexual role alone.
An Interview with Stephanie Coontz”. In addition, Friedan has been criticized for focusing solely on the plight of middle-class white women, and not giving enough attention to the differing situations encountered by women in less stable economic situations, or women of other races. The statement called for “the true equality for all women”.
Why Was The Feminine Mystique Such a Phenomenon?: A Clarification
Retrieved January 12, In the final chapter of The Feminine MystiqueFriedan discusses several case studies of women who have begun to go against the feminine mystique. Friedan should save her pity for those who really need it—the half starved, oppressed people in the world.
Also in Februarya fiftieth-anniversary edition of The Feminine Mystique was published, with a new introduction by Gail Collins. The Making and Meaning of Feminist Knowledge. Although aware of and sharing this dissatisfaction, women in the s misinterpreted it as an individual problem and rarely talked about it with other women. For each conflict, Friedan offers examples of women who have overcome it. February 19, . In addition to its obvious contribution to feminism, The Feminine Mystique related to many other coinciding movements.
Norton publishing house, where Betty Friedan’s work was initially circulated to be published as a book also generated some criticism. Friedan also states that this is in contrast to the s, at which time women’s magazines often featured confident and independent heroines, many of whom were involved in careers. Friedan ends her book by promoting education and meaningful work as the ultimate method by which American women can avoid becoming trapped in the feminine mystique, calling for a drastic rethinking of what it means to be feminine, and offering several educational and occupational suggestions.
Why Was The Feminine Mystique Such a Phenomenon?: A Clarification – CaltechTHESIS
Friedan points out that this is unproven and that Margaret Meada prominent functionalist, had a flourishing career as an anthropologist. During vetty year ofThe Feminine Mystique became the bestselling nonfiction book with over one million copies sold. Or better yet, the future of the world. NOW demanded the removal of all barriers to “equal and economic advance”.
In the Betty Friedan Hometown Tribute committee won the Superior Achievement award in the special projects category for its 50th anniversary celebration of the publication of The Feminine Mystique. Law and custom have much to give women that has been withheld from them, but the position tue women will surely be what it is: Friedan recalls her own yhe to conform to society’s expectations by giving up her promising career in psychology to raise children, and shows that other young women still struggled with the same kind of decision.
The Feminine Mystique – Wikipedia
Friedan says that this change in education arrested girls in their emotional development at a young age, because they never had to face the painful identity crisis and subsequent maturation that comes from dealing with many adult challenges. The Feminine Mystique is widely regarded as one of the most influential nonfiction books of the 20th century, and is widely credited with sparking the beginning of second-wave feminism in the United States.
Also into celebrate its centennial the U.
When the mother lacks tge self, Friedan notes, she often tries to live through her children, causing the children to lose their own sense of themselves as separate human beings with their own lives. Friedan interviews several full-time housewives, finding that although they are not fulfilled by their housework, they are all extremely busy with it.