Coated microneedles for transdermal delivery. As a result, most physical enhancers rely on relatively costly, re-usable devices that interface with a disposable drug reservoir component. Transdermal delivery represents an attractive alternative to oral delivery of drugs and is poised to provide an alternative to hypodermic injection too 1 — 4. Cavitational ultrasound In addition to heating, ultrasound is also known to generate cavitation, which is the formation, oscillation and, in some cases, collapse of bubbles in an ultrasonic pressure field. The role of electroosmotic flow in transdermal iontophoresis.

Recent studies have suggested that suitably designed combinations of chemical enhancers can balance trade-offs between enhancement and irritation based on the hypothesis that certain enhancer combinations are especially potent when present at specific, narrow compositions. Transdermal delivery also has advantages over hypodermic injections, which are painful, generate dangerous medical waste and pose the risk of disease transmission by needle re-use, especially in developing countries 5. Today, there are 19 transdermal delivery systems for such drugs as estradiol, fentanyl, lidocaine and testosterone; combination patches containing more than one drug for contraception and hormone replacement; and iontophoretic and ultrasonic delivery systems for analgesia Table 1 , Fig. Rothbard JB, et al. The main ingredient of the formulation is Khardal , and Sirka is used as an excipient [ 10 ]. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. Microneedles are an exception, because they can deliver macromolecules and vaccines, should be inexpensive to manufacture as single-use patches, and do not require a power supply.

The use of short, high-voltage pulses is well known as a method to reversibly disrupt cell membranes for gene transfection and other applications.

literature review of tdds

However, upon electroporation of stratum corneum lipid bilayers, stratum corneum resistance rapidly and dramatically drops, and the electric field correspondingly distributes to a greater extent into the litrrature tissues, which contain sensory and motor neurons. Skin can be disrupted on the micron scale by third-generation physical enhancement using microneedles, thermal ablation and microdermabrasion.


Transdermal drug delivery with a pressure wave. Adv Colloid Interface Sci. Second-generation delivery systems using chemical enhancers, non-cavitational ultrasound and iontophoresis have also resulted in clinical products; the ability of iontophoresis to control delivery rates in real time provides added functionality. These approaches have found success for enhanced delivery of some small molecules, especially for topical dermatological and cosmetic applications.

Microneedle treatment was reported to be painless by the volunteers and was generally well tolerated.

Skin electroporation for transdermal and topical delivery. The strongest asset of iontophoresis is that the rate of drug delivery scales with the electrical current, which liteerature be readily controlled by a microprocessor or, in some cases, the patient The immune response can also be heightened by adding chemical adjuvants 7.

View at Google Scholar. Table of Contents Alerts. High-throughput path to acquisition.


The in vitro permeation study of the prepared patch was carried out through egg shell membrane because the egg shell membrane resembles human stratum corneum as it consists mainly of keratin [ 22 ].

Dramatically increased enhancement with low skin irritation potential was found, for example, for fo combination of sodium laureth sulfate an anionic surfactant and phenyl piperazine a compound with aromatic nitrogen at concentrations of 0. Bouwstra JA, et al. Cavitational ultrasound is not believed to contribute a significant driving force for transport.

Practical considerations for optimal transdermal drug delivery.

Phosphate buffer pH 7. A recently approved iontophoretic patch enables patients to periodically activate the patch to administer a bolus of fentanyl based on their need for literxture relief 8 Table 1. The TDDS offers several significant advantages such as avoidance of the hepatic-first-pass metabolism, avoidance of gastrointestinal drug absorption difficulty, and noninvasiveness.

Water distribution and related morphology in human stratum corneum at different hydration levels.

literature review of tdds

This separator was connected to a condenser. In a recent study, naltrexone was administered to healthy volunteers whose skin was pretreated with microneedles However, the maximum current—and therefore the maximum delivery rate—is limited by skin irritation and pain caused by the general inability of iontophoresis to localize its effects to the stratum corneum Prausnitz One mL of the receptor solution was collected as sample each time and simultaneously one mL of phosphate buffer solution was added back to the receptor cell for maintaining the literayure initial volume of the receptor cell solution.


In conventional medicine, the antiemetic treatment comes along with certain side effects. Vaccine delivery via the skin is even more attractive because it targets the potent epidermal Langerhans and dermal dendritic cells that may generate a strong immune response at much fo doses than deeper injection 7. Finally, there is the possibility of not only delivering drugs, but also extracting molecules analytes through the skin 9.

Becker BM, et al.

Practical considerations for optimal transdermal drug delivery.

Ultrasound was first widely recognized as a skin permeation enhancer when physical therapists discovered that massaging anti-inflammatory agents into the skin using ultrasonic heating probes increased efficacy 29 Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. Because the stratum corneum electrical resistance is orders of magnitude greater than deeper tissues, the electric field applied during electroporation is initially concentrated in the stratum corneum.

Closer examination of the stratum corneum barrier reveals a brick and mortar structure, where the bricks represent non-living corneocyte cells composed primarily of cross-linked keratin and the intercellular mortar is a mixture of lipids organized largely in bilayers.

One challenge of this approach is that increased permeation enhancement, even of small molecules, typically correlates with increased skin irritation.